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  1. Spider Veins or Varicos Veins
  2. Sclerotherapy
  3. Botox Injections
  4. Facelift - Mini Facelift, Weekend Facelift, or Derm Abrasion
  5. Restylane Injections - Please Call for a Consultation 877-707-2277
  6. Soft Tissue Implants or Collagen Injections
  7. Hair Removal or Reduction
  8. Scar Removal or Improvements
  9. Laughlines
  10. Birthmarks and Tatoos
  11. Age Spots
  12. Facial Resurficing
  13. Chemical Peel
  14. Liposuction
  15. Breast Augmentation
  16. Facelift

Houston Plastic Surgery | Facelift | Plastic Surgeon |  Breast Augmentation | | Dr Mentz | Brest Augmentation Photos | Liposuction Photos | Facelift Photos |

 

Publications

  1.   Breast Implants - An Informational Update
    This report contains information on both silicone and saline implants. It also also contains information on breast feeding with implants, polyurethane foam-covered implants, special medical and physical considerations, breast implant and medical device reporting, and frequently asked questions.

  2.   Breast Reduction Often Good Medicine
    This publication discusses breast reduction. It addresses the medical concerns concerning the surgery and explains how one should prepare for the procedure.

  3.   Cosmetic Laser Surgery: A High-Tech Weapon in the Fight Against Aging Skin
    This fact sheet contains information on laser cosmetic surgery. It descibes skin resurfacing, what it can do for you, what the risks are, and how to find a surgeon.

  4. Treatments for Aging Skin (Copyright © AAD)
    This web site discusses various medical proceedures available to help the appearance of aging skin.

Organizations

  1.   Food and Drug Administration, OPHS, HHS

  2. American Academy of Dermatology

  3. American Academy of Facial, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc.

  4. American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS)

Federal government resources


A smaller nose. Bigger breasts. Slimmer thighs. Plumper lips. Less hair on the body. More hair on the head. Whether we're looking to tighten our tummies or lighten our laugh lines, America's fascination with youth and beauty has long fueled the development of medical products for cosmetic purposes. And if such "vanity drugs" can be shown to be safe and effective, the Food and Drug Administration just may approve.
The ongoing fight to delay or reverse the aging process has dermatologists and cosmetic plastic surgeons responding with products like Restylane (hyaluronic acid), one of a handful of soft tissue fillers recently approved by the FDA to treat facial wrinkles. Restylane is an injectable gel that acts as a filler to remove the wrinkle, producing instantaneous results. Such products are not as invasive as facelifts, eyelid surgery, and other reconstructive procedures. And they are more effective and last longer than creams, lotions and other topical products, whether over-the-counter or prescription. In addition, the fact that the treatments result in little or no downtime makes them more attractive to those seeking a quick fix. Without making a single incision, doctors can erase wrinkles, acne scars and sun damage in a matter of minutes.

"This is a huge industry," says Jonathan K. Wilkin, M.D., a medical officer in the FDA's Division of Dermatologic and Dental Drug Products. "The way people try to move the clock back is through the skin." Basically, he says, through various products and procedures, "they are addressing the effects of gravity on the skin over time."

Aging Skin 101
An increased understanding of the structure and function of the skin is helping to drive the development of products that reduce the visible signs of facial aging, according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD).

With aging, all skin cells begin to produce excess amounts of free radicals--unstable oxygen molecules that, under ideal circumstances, are removed by naturally occurring antioxidants within the skin's cells. In aging skin cells, antioxidants are in short supply. The free radicals generated are left unchecked and cause damage to cell membranes, proteins, and DNA. These free radicals eventually break down a protein substance in connective tissue (collagen) and release chemicals that cause inflammation in the skin. It is a combination of these cellular and molecular events that leads to skin aging and the formation of wrinkles, the AAD says.


As we get older, two components of our skin--collagen and elastin--degenerate, setting the stage for the appearance of wrinkles, creases, folds, and furrows. The breakdown of these components, accelerated by sun exposure and gravity, results in the sagging skin of old age.

Illustration by Renée Gordon. Source: National Institute on Aging.

Considerable research has been done to understand the aging process, and studies now show that products containing bioactive ingredients (those that interact with living tissues or systems) can benefit sun-damaged, discolored, and aging skin, giving consumers new choices for restoring their overall appearance. But why is the FDA reviewing products that simply make people look and feel good when typically the agency evaluates disease-fighting treatments?

"If something that is being implanted into the body could have health consequences, we're concerned about it," says Stephen P. Rhodes, M.S., chief of the FDA's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Devices Branch. "Wrinkle fillers affect the structure of the face and could have such health consequences."

Facing Facts
Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the FDA legally defines products by their intended uses. Drugs are defined as products intended for treating or preventing disease and affecting the structure or any function of the body. A medical device is a product that also is intended to affect the structure or function of the body, but which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through the chemical action of a drug--nor is it dependent on being metabolized.

The hyaluronic acid in Restylane, although biosynthetically produced (formed of chemical compounds by the enzyme action of living organisms), is almost identical to that in all living organisms. Hyaluronic acid is a structural component of skin that creates volume and shape. Concentrations of hyaluronic acid throughout the body decline with age, causing undesirable changes in the skin. Restylane binds to water and provides volume to easily fill in larger folds of skin left by tissue loss around the mouth and cheeks. "This makes it a structural action," says Rhodes, "much like a chin implant."

In contrast, cosmetics are defined as substances that cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness, or alter the appearance, without affecting the body's structure or function. This definition includes skin-care products such as creams, lotions, powders and sprays; perfume; lipstick; fingernail polish; and more.

Different laws and regulations apply to each type of product. Some products must comply with the requirements for both cosmetics and drugs. This happens when a product has two intended uses, such as an antidandruff shampoo. A shampoo is a cosmetic because it is intended to clean hair. An antidandruff shampoo is a cosmetic and a drug because it is intended to treat dandruff (which affects the follicles where the hair is formed) and clean hair.

Warning letters issued by the FDA recently to firms that marketed hair care products with claims such as restoration of hair growth and hair loss prevention illustrate an important distinction between the legal definitions of cosmetics and drugs. Warning letters officially inform companies that they may be engaged in illegal activities, and instruct manufacturers on how to bring their products into compliance with the law. Hair growers and hair loss prevention products, because of their mechanism of action, are considered drugs, not cosmetics, and these firms were not meeting the legal requirements for marketing a drug.

Unlike drugs and medical devices, neither cosmetic products nor cosmetic ingredients are reviewed or approved by the FDA before they are sold to the public. The agency only acts against cosmetic products found to cause harm after they are on the market.

Cosmetics or Drugs?
Much confusion exists about the status of cosmetic products having medicinal or drug-like benefits, says Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., director of the FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors. Although the FDA does not consider the term "cosmeceutical" to be a valid product class, Katz says it is used throughout the cosmetic industry to describe products that are marketed as cosmetics but that have drug-like effects. Tretinoin (retinoic acid), the biologically active form of vitamin A, for example, is not prohibited from use in cosmetics. However, when it is used topically for treating mild to moderate acne, sun-damaged skin, and other skin conditions, it is recognized by the FDA as a drug. This is because it acts deep at the skin's cellular level by increasing collagen.

According to the AAD, the answer to whether or not cosmeceuticals really work lies in the ingredients and how they interact with the biological mechanisms that occur in aging skin. The regulatory question the FDA faces when considering such products, Katz says, "is whether or not a manufacturer is making a structure or function claim."

The FDA uses different standards when evaluating the risks and benefits of products used for cosmetic treatments than for therapeutic uses of products. Steven K. Galson, M.D., M.P.H., acting director for the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, adds that products like tretinoin and Restylane that are not indicated for serious or life-threatening conditions are subject to close examination by the agency because of the benefit-to-risk ratio.

"Because these products are for cosmetic purposes, they must be extraordinarily safe," Galson says. This means that the FDA may allow someone to incur a greater risk from products that treat medical conditions, rather than from those that are intended for cosmetic purposes. "We generally won't tolerate much risk for a drug whose primary use is cosmetic," he says.

Welcome Side Effects
Many cosmetic treatments are the result of common disease therapies whose unexpected side effects were pleasant surprises. Vaniqa (eflornithine hydrochloride), the first prescription drug for removing unwanted hair, is a topically applied version of a drug that was originally developed to treat African sleeping sickness. Similarly, minoxidil originally had been prescribed as an oral tablet to treat high blood pressure. As a result of side effects that included hair growth and reversal of male baldness, Rogaine (2 percent minoxidil) was the first drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of hair loss (androgenetic alopecia).

"There's a lot of serendipity in drug development," says the FDA's Wilkin. A pill to help smokers quit, for example, evolved out of the unexpected observation that a drug intended to treat depression also seemed to take away the desire to smoke. Bupropion was first marketed in 1989 by GlaxoSmithKline as an antidepressant under the name Wellbutrin. After doctors noticed that patients being treated with Wellbutrin gave up smoking spontaneously, studies were done to show that the product could help smokers quit, as well. As a result, the slow-release form of bupropion, marketed as Zyban, was approved by the FDA in 1997 as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.

Some pharmaceutical companies, however, apparently aren't ready to enter the vanity drugs arena. Patrick Davish, the global product communications spokesman for Merck & Co. Inc., says that the drug company has no "cosmetic" drugs in its product pipeline at this time.

"The fact that we don't participate in that market right now-I'm not sure that's reflective of any particular deliberation or decision," he says. "That's just not where the science has taken us."

Before electing to have a cosmetic procedure
Discuss it with a physician who can refer you to a specialist in the fields of dermatology and aesthetic plastic surgery.
Begin with a consultation to find the right doctor, and select one who is qualified to do the procedure you want.
Make sure the doctor you choose is certified by an appropriate medical board.
Have realistic expectations about the benefits you want to achieve.
Compare fees--insurance does not usually cover elective procedures.
Saving Face
According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), nearly 7 million Americans underwent surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures in 2002. Laura Bradbard was one of them.

Despite the sudden explosion of such "lunchtime" techniques as Restylane for erasing wrinkles, and Botox (botulinum toxin type A) for smoothing out frown lines, Bradbard, of Gaithersburg, Md., opted for a longer-lasting reconstructive facelift that included a chin implant, eyelid surgery, and surprisingly, only a few days of pain-free recovery.

"None of this was medically necessary," admits Bradbard, a 48-year-old FDA press officer, "but I had been feeling worn out and tired. What I saw in the mirror was sad." Bradbard says she didn't get a facelift to look younger; she only wanted her face to look more balanced. In the end, she says, "My doctor gave me a chin that geometrically fit my face," and a look that she says makes her feel better about herself.

Like Bradbard, others are spending a lot of money to look good. "With patients living 90-plus years, today's anti-aging modalities offer people noninvasive procedures that mimic true facelifts," says Craig R. Dufresne, M.D., a plastic and reconstructive surgeon in Chevy Chase, Md., who performed Bradbard's surgery. However, Dufresne says he suggested reconstructive surgery for Bradbard because "she wanted to deal with structural changes to restore facial balance," which was more than the chemical action of a drug could produce. "And skin product application (such as wrinkle fillers) following a facelift," adds Dufresne, "will actually allow the facelift or any other reconstructive procedure to last longer and make a great result even better."

Acupressure
Acupuncture
Facials
Foot Reflexology
Hypnotherapy
Spa on the Spot
Steam/Fume Bath
Therapeutic Touch
Chiropractic Integrative Therapy
Craniosacral Therapy
Deep Relaxation Therapy
Dream Counseling and Integration
Energy Balance
Epsom Salts Bath
Express Spa

Top 5 Cosmetic Nonsurgical Procedures (2002)
botulinum toxin injection (Botox®, Myobloc®)

microdermabrasion

collagen injection

laser hair removal

chemical peel
1,658,667

1,032,417

783,120

736,458

495,415

Source: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Top 5 Cosmetic Surgical Procedures (2002)
lipoplasty (liposuction)

breast augmentation

eyelid surgery

rhinoplasty (nose reshaping)

breast reduction
372,831

249,641

229,092

156,973

125,614

Source: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery


Seeking Professional Advice
Since it is often difficult for people to determine the validity of claims made about topical products and to decide among the overwhelming number of anti-aging procedures, how do people know what's right for them?

"A good place to start is with a dermatologist," says Arielle N.B. Kauvar, M.D., clinical associate professor of dermatology at the New York University School of Medicine. "Dermatologists are trained in the health, function and disease state of the skin, and people could save time, money and confusion by seeking the advice of a dermatologist rather than guessing what might work for them."

Kauvar says a dermatologist's recommendations can help consumers make informed decisions. "People shouldn't hunt and peck for products," she adds. "Not knowing what type of skin you have is why so many people try unnecessary products that can often do more harm than good."

An expert in laser procedures, Kauvar says that, in the past, techniques for improving aging skin required invasive laser or surgical procedures, which produced open wounds and required long recovery times. Today, she says, people can choose from a variety of non-ablative (non-wounding) laser treatments that are designed to reverse, improve or erase the early signs of aging, take very little time to perform, and have a minimal, if any, recovery time.

While Bradbard wasn't interested in removing wrinkles at the time of her facelift, given what she knows about new technologies and drug delivery systems today, she says, "I would consider both non-invasive procedures and another facelift down the road, depending on how much my skin changes. I would ask my doctor what would give me the best results with the longest-lasting effects."

Buyer Beware
Anti-aging products that promise to diminish wrinkles and fine lines are found on many store shelves. However, dermatologists recommend that people consider only those procedures and products that have proven, over time, to be most effective at reversing the aging process. Most doctors agree that the leading product to prevent premature wrinkles and sun damage is sunscreen. A broad-spectrum sunscreen that protects the skin from both UVA and UVB rays, with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher, can prevent the skin from looking older than it is.

According to the ASAPS, it's important to realize that although certain products and procedures are effective, they are also limited by the skin's normal aging process. A product that has been deemed effective for erasing wrinkles doesn't necessarily erase wrinkles--there are lots of variables that determine its effectiveness.

For example, the active ingredient in a drug must be delivered to the skin at a therapeutic concentration and remain in the skin long enough to have an effect. Also, because the composition of a man's body differs from a woman's, products or procedures can have different effects. The facial area in men contains hair, for example, and their skin is thicker. This means the blood supply is greater--and so is the risk of bleeding--but it also could mean better healing.

And cosmetic procedures come with risks. If a procedure is performed poorly, the physical and emotional scars could be carried for life. Understand the risks and side effects that may be involved.

"My wanting to improve my appearance is like my husband's desire to restore a vintage automobile," says Bradbard. "We both want something to look good for as long as it can."

For More Information
American Academy of Dermatology
PO Box 4014, Schaumburg, IL 60168-4014
(888) 462-3376

American Society for Dermatologic Surgery
5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Suite 120, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
(800) 441-2737

American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
11081 Winners Circle, Los Alamitos, CA 90720
(888) 272-7711

 

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A smaller nose. Bigger breasts. Slimmer thighs. Plumper lips. Less hair on the body. More hair on the head. Whether we're looking to tighten our tummies or lighten our laugh lines, America's fascination with youth and beauty has long fueled the development of medical products for cosmetic purposes. And if such "vanity drugs" can be shown to be safe and effective, the Food and Drug Administration just may approve.

The ongoing fight to delay or reverse the aging process has dermatologists and cosmetic plastic surgeons responding with products like Restylane (hyaluronic acid), one of a handful of soft tissue fillers recently approved by the FDA to treat facial wrinkles. Restylane is an injectable gel that acts as a filler to remove the wrinkle, producing instantaneous results. Such products are not as invasive as facelifts, eyelid surgery, and other reconstructive procedures. And they are more effective and last longer than creams, lotions and other topical products, whether over-the-counter or prescription. In addition, the fact that the treatments result in little or no downtime makes them more attractive to those seeking a quick fix. Without making a single incision, doctors can erase wrinkles, acne scars and sun damage in a matter of minutes.

"This is a huge industry," says Jonathan K. Wilkin, M.D., a medical officer in the FDA's Division of Dermatologic and Dental Drug Products. "The way people try to move the clock back is through the skin." Basically, he says, through various products and procedures, "they are addressing the effects of gravity on the skin over time."

Aging Skin 101
An increased understanding of the structure and function of the skin is helping to drive the development of products that reduce the visible signs of facial aging, according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD).

With aging, all skin cells begin to produce excess amounts of free radicals--unstable oxygen molecules that, under ideal circumstances, are removed by naturally occurring antioxidants within the skin's cells. In aging skin cells, antioxidants are in short supply. The free radicals generated are left unchecked and cause damage to cell membranes, proteins, and DNA. These free radicals eventually break down a protein substance in connective tissue (collagen) and release chemicals that cause inflammation in the skin. It is a combination of these cellular and molecular events that leads to skin aging and the formation of wrinkles, the AAD says.

As we get older, two components of our skin--collagen and elastin--degenerate, setting the stage for the appearance of wrinkles, creases, folds, and furrows. The breakdown of these components, accelerated by sun exposure and gravity, results in the sagging skin of old age.

Illustration by Renée Gordon. Source: National Institute on Aging.

Considerable research has been done to understand the aging process, and studies now show that products containing bioactive ingredients (those that interact with living tissues or systems) can benefit sun-damaged, discolored, and aging skin, giving consumers new choices for restoring their overall appearance. But why is the FDA reviewing products that simply make people look and feel good when typically the agency evaluates disease-fighting treatments?

"If something that is being implanted into the body could have health consequences, we're concerned about it," says Stephen P. Rhodes, M.S., chief of the FDA's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Devices Branch. "Wrinkle fillers affect the structure of the face and could have such health consequences."

Facing Facts
Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the FDA legally defines products by their intended uses. Drugs are defined as products intended for treating or preventing disease and affecting the structure or any function of the body. A medical device is a product that also is intended to affect the structure or function of the body, but which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through the chemical action of a drug--nor is it dependent on being metabolized.

The hyaluronic acid in Restylane, although biosynthetically produced (formed of chemical compounds by the enzyme action of living organisms), is almost identical to that in all living organisms. Hyaluronic acid is a structural component of skin that creates volume and shape. Concentrations of hyaluronic acid throughout the body decline with age, causing undesirable changes in the skin. Restylane binds to water and provides volume to easily fill in larger folds of skin left by tissue loss around the mouth and cheeks. "This makes it a structural action," says Rhodes, "much like a chin implant."

In contrast, cosmetics are defined as substances that cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness, or alter the appearance, without affecting the body's structure or function. This definition includes skin-care products such as creams, lotions, powders and sprays; perfume; lipstick; fingernail polish; and more.

Different laws and regulations apply to each type of product. Some products must comply with the requirements for both cosmetics and drugs. This happens when a product has two intended uses, such as an antidandruff shampoo. A shampoo is a cosmetic because it is intended to clean hair. An antidandruff shampoo is a cosmetic and a drug because it is intended to treat dandruff (which affects the follicles where the hair is formed) and clean hair.

Warning letters issued by the FDA recently to firms that marketed hair care products with claims such as restoration of hair growth and hair loss prevention illustrate an important distinction between the legal definitions of cosmetics and drugs. Warning letters officially inform companies that they may be engaged in illegal activities, and instruct manufacturers on how to bring their products into compliance with the law. Hair growers and hair loss prevention products, because of their mechanism of action, are considered drugs, not cosmetics, and these firms were not meeting the legal requirements for marketing a drug.

Unlike drugs and medical devices, neither cosmetic products nor cosmetic ingredients are reviewed or approved by the FDA before they are sold to the public. The agency only acts against cosmetic products found to cause harm after they are on the market.

Cosmetics or Drugs?
Much confusion exists about the status of cosmetic products having medicinal or drug-like benefits, says Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., director of the FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors. Although the FDA does not consider the term "cosmeceutical" to be a valid product class, Katz says it is used throughout the cosmetic industry to describe products that are marketed as cosmetics but that have drug-like effects. Tretinoin (retinoic acid), the biologically active form of vitamin A, for example, is not prohibited from use in cosmetics. However, when it is used topically for treating mild to moderate acne, sun-damaged skin, and other skin conditions, it is recognized by the FDA as a drug. This is because it acts deep at the skin's cellular level by increasing collagen.

According to the AAD, the answer to whether or not cosmeceuticals really work lies in the ingredients and how they interact with the biological mechanisms that occur in aging skin. The regulatory question the FDA faces when considering such products, Katz says, "is whether or not a manufacturer is making a structure or function claim."

The FDA uses different standards when evaluating the risks and benefits of products used for cosmetic treatments than for therapeutic uses of products. Steven K. Galson, M.D., M.P.H., acting director for the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, adds that products like tretinoin and Restylane that are not indicated for serious or life-threatening conditions are subject to close examination by the agency because of the benefit-to-risk ratio.

"Because these products are for cosmetic purposes, they must be extraordinarily safe," Galson says. This means that the FDA may allow someone to incur a greater risk from products that treat medical conditions, rather than from those that are intended for cosmetic purposes. "We generally won't tolerate much risk for a drug whose primary use is cosmetic," he says.

Welcome Side Effects
Many cosmetic treatments are the result of common disease therapies whose unexpected side effects were pleasant surprises. Vaniqa (eflornithine hydrochloride), the first prescription drug for removing unwanted hair, is a topically applied version of a drug that was originally developed to treat African sleeping sickness. Similarly, minoxidil originally had been prescribed as an oral tablet to treat high blood pressure. As a result of side effects that included hair growth and reversal of male baldness, Rogaine (2 percent minoxidil) was the first drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of hair loss (androgenetic alopecia).

"There's a lot of serendipity in drug development," says the FDA's Wilkin. A pill to help smokers quit, for example, evolved out of the unexpected observation that a drug intended to treat depression also seemed to take away the desire to smoke. Bupropion was first marketed in 1989 by GlaxoSmithKline as an antidepressant under the name Wellbutrin. After doctors noticed that patients being treated with Wellbutrin gave up smoking spontaneously, studies were done to show that the product could help smokers quit, as well. As a result, the slow-release form of bupropion, marketed as Zyban, was approved by the FDA in 1997 as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.

Some pharmaceutical companies, however, apparently aren't ready to enter the vanity drugs arena. Patrick Davish, the global product communications spokesman for Merck & Co. Inc., says that the drug company has no "cosmetic" drugs in its product pipeline at this time.

"The fact that we don't participate in that market right now-I'm not sure that's reflective of any particular deliberation or decision," he says. "That's just not where the science has taken us."

Before electing to have a cosmetic procedure
Discuss it with a physician who can refer you to a specialist in the fields of dermatology and aesthetic plastic surgery.
Begin with a consultation to find the right doctor, and select one who is qualified to do the procedure you want.
Make sure the doctor you choose is certified by an appropriate medical board.
Have realistic expectations about the benefits you want to achieve.
Compare fees--insurance does not usually cover elective procedures.
Saving Face
According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), nearly 7 million Americans underwent surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures in 2002. Laura Bradbard was one of them.

Despite the sudden explosion of such "lunchtime" techniques as Restylane for erasing wrinkles, and Botox (botulinum toxin type A) for smoothing out frown lines, Bradbard, of Gaithersburg, Md., opted for a longer-lasting reconstructive facelift that included a chin implant, eyelid surgery, and surprisingly, only a few days of pain-free recovery.

"None of this was medically necessary," admits Bradbard, a 48-year-old FDA press officer, "but I had been feeling worn out and tired. What I saw in the mirror was sad." Bradbard says she didn't get a facelift to look younger; she only wanted her face to look more balanced. In the end, she says, "My doctor gave me a chin that geometrically fit my face," and a look that she says makes her feel better about herself.

Like Bradbard, others are spending a lot of money to look good. "With patients living 90-plus years, today's anti-aging modalities offer people noninvasive procedures that mimic true facelifts," says Craig R. Dufresne, M.D., a plastic and reconstructive surgeon in Chevy Chase, Md., who performed Bradbard's surgery. However, Dufresne says he suggested reconstructive surgery for Bradbard because "she wanted to deal with structural changes to restore facial balance," which was more than the chemical action of a drug could produce. "And skin product application (such as wrinkle fillers) following a facelift," adds Dufresne, "will actually allow the facelift or any other reconstructive procedure to last longer and make a great result even better."

Top 5 Cosmetic Nonsurgical Procedures (2002)
botulinum toxin injection (Botox®, Myobloc®)

microdermabrasion

collagen injection

laser hair removal

chemical peel
1,658,667

1,032,417

783,120

736,458

495,415

Source: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Top 5 Cosmetic Surgical Procedures (2002)
lipoplasty (liposuction)

breast augmentation

eyelid surgery

rhinoplasty (nose reshaping)

breast reduction
372,831

249,641

229,092

156,973

125,614

Source: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Seeking Professional Advice
Since it is often difficult for people to determine the validity of claims made about topical products and to decide among the overwhelming number of anti-aging procedures, how do people know what's right for them?

"A good place to start is with a dermatologist," says Arielle N.B. Kauvar, M.D., clinical associate professor of dermatology at the New York University School of Medicine. "Dermatologists are trained in the health, function and disease state of the skin, and people could save time, money and confusion by seeking the advice of a dermatologist rather than guessing what might work for them."

Kauvar says a dermatologist's recommendations can help consumers make informed decisions. "People shouldn't hunt and peck for products," she adds. "Not knowing what type of skin you have is why so many people try unnecessary products that can often do more harm than good."

An expert in laser procedures, Kauvar says that, in the past, techniques for improving aging skin required invasive laser or surgical procedures, which produced open wounds and required long recovery times. Today, she says, people can choose from a variety of non-ablative (non-wounding) laser treatments that are designed to reverse, improve or erase the early signs of aging, take very little time to perform, and have a minimal, if any, recovery time.

While Bradbard wasn't interested in removing wrinkles at the time of her facelift, given what she knows about new technologies and drug delivery systems today, she says, "I would consider both non-invasive procedures and another facelift down the road, depending on how much my skin changes. I would ask my doctor what would give me the best results with the longest-lasting effects."

Buyer Beware
Anti-aging products that promise to diminish wrinkles and fine lines are found on many store shelves. However, dermatologists recommend that people consider only those procedures and products that have proven, over time, to be most effective at reversing the aging process. Most doctors agree that the leading product to prevent premature wrinkles and sun damage is sunscreen. A broad-spectrum sunscreen that protects the skin from both UVA and UVB rays, with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher, can prevent the skin from looking older than it is.

According to the ASAPS, it's important to realize that although certain products and procedures are effective, they are also limited by the skin's normal aging process. A product that has been deemed effective for erasing wrinkles doesn't necessarily erase wrinkles--there are lots of variables that determine its effectiveness.

For example, the active ingredient in a drug must be delivered to the skin at a therapeutic concentration and remain in the skin long enough to have an effect. Also, because the composition of a man's body differs from a woman's, products or procedures can have different effects. The facial area in men contains hair, for example, and their skin is thicker. This means the blood supply is greater--and so is the risk of bleeding--but it also could mean better healing.

And cosmetic procedures come with risks. If a procedure is performed poorly, the physical and emotional scars could be carried for life. Understand the risks and side effects that may be involved.

"My wanting to improve my appearance is like my husband's desire to restore a vintage automobile," says Bradbard. "We both want something to look good for as long as it can."

For More Information
American Academy of Dermatology
PO Box 4014, Schaumburg, IL 60168-4014
(888) 462-3376

American Society for Dermatologic Surgery
5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Suite 120, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
(800) 441-2737

American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
11081 Winners Circle, Los Alamitos, CA 90720
(888) 272-7711

 

 

General/Overviews
Botox Cosmetic: A Look at Looking Good (Food and Drug Administration)
Botulinum Toxin (American Academy of Dermatology)
Tired of That Same "Old" Expression? Botulinum Toxin Erases Signs of Aging and Common Facial Expressions (American Academy of Dermatology)

Disease Management
Safe Administration of Botulinum Toxin is the Key Ingredient to Younger, Smoother Skin (American Academy of Dermatology)

Specific Conditions/Aspects
Botox and Migraine (American Council for Headache Education)
Botox Treatment (Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association)
Botox: Can It Treat Fibromyalgia? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for Muscle Spasms (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Botulinum Toxin Type A (BTX-A) for Dystonia (We Move)
Botulinum Toxin Type B (BTX-B) for Dystonia (We Move)

Organizations
American Academy of Dermatology
American Society of Plastic Surgeons
We Move

From the National Institutes of Health
Skin Care and Aging (National Institute on Aging)

General/Overviews
Mature Skin (American Academy of Dermatology)
What Is Aging Skin? (American Academy of Dermatology)

Pictures/Diagrams
Slide Show: How Aging Affects Your Skin (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Research
FDA Approves New Product for Facial Wrinkles (Food and Drug Administration)
More Ways to Rejuvenate Your Face (American Academy of Dermatology)

Specific Conditions/Aspects
Aging Eyelids (American Society for Dermatologic Surgery)
Aging Skin FAQs (American Academy of Dermatology)
Collagen Creams: Do They Nourish the Skin? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Liver Spots and Aging Hands (American Society for Dermatologic Surgery)
Smoking: How Does It Cause Wrinkles? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Treatment
Cosmetic Procedures (American Academy of Dermatology)
Laser Resurfacing: One Way to Treat Wrinkles (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Saving Face: The Nips and Tucks of Face-Lifts (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Treating Non-Facial Aging Skin (American Academy of Dermatology)
Wrinkle Treatment: When You Don't Want a Face-Lift (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Dictionaries/Glossaries
AgingSkinNet: Glossary (American Academy of Dermatology)
Glossary of Terms (American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)

Directories
Find a Dermatologic Surgeon (American Society for Dermatologic Surgery)
Find a Dermatologist (American Academy of Dermatology)

Organizations
American Academy of Dermatology
American Society for Dermatologic Surgery
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Also available in: Spanish
National Institute on Aging
Information from the Medical Encyclopedia
Skin Aging

 

 

 

Dermatologic Surgery
Dermatologic surgeons are board-certified specialists in dermatology who are trained and experienced in procedures to repair the function and improve the appearance of the skin. Using a variety of sur details...
American Society For Dermatologic Surgery
Find a Dermatologic Surgeon
Search by name, state, or procedure to find a dermatologic surgeon. details...
American Society For Dermatologic Surgery
Find a Dermatologist
The American Academy of Dermatology is the largest and most influential of all dermatologic associations. With a membership of 13,000 it represents virtually all practicing dermatologists in the Unite details...
American Academy of Dermatology
Health Information from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
Browse this site for online publications, consensus statements and fact sheets on musculoskeletal and skin diseases. Includes information about Fibromyalgia, hip and knee joint problems, vitiligo, pso details...
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health
Online Digital Dermatology Image Library
This site features over 3,000 dermatology images for use by health care professionals, parents, and patients. details...
Educational Institution--Follow the Resource URL for More Information
Retinoids
In recent years new synthetic derivatives of Vitamin A (retinoids) have been developed for the treatment of various skin conditions, such as severe acne, sun spots, wrinkles, and psoriasis. Some retin details...
American Society For Dermatologic Surgery

 

 

Houston Dermatology Houston

Dermatologist Houston Texas

Houston Dermatology Houston
Dermatologist Houston Texas

 

 

Houston Facts

Houston is the fourth most populous city in the
nation (trailing only New York, Los Angeles and Chicago), and is the largest in the southern U.S. and Texas.
Founded in 1836, the City of Houston has a population of 1.9 million.
The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (Houston CMSA) consists of eight counties: Brazoria, Chambers, Fort Bend, Galveston, Harris, Liberty, Montgomery and Waller.
The metro area's population of 4.8 million is 10th largest among U.S. metropolitan statistical areas.
The Houston CMSA covers 8,778 square miles, an area slightly smaller than Massachusetts but larger than New Jersey.
Each year more than 38 million people zip in and out of Houston's two major airports.
Houstonians eat out more than residents of any other city. While here you can choose to indulge in one of the more than 11,000 restaurants ranging from award-winning and upscale to memorable deli shops.
Houston has a Theater District second only to New York City with its concentration of seats in one geographic area. Located downtown, the 17-block Theater District is home to eight performing arts organizations with more than 12,000 seats.
Houston has a unique museum district offering a range of museums, galleries, art and cultural institutions, including the City's major museums.
Houston has more than 500 cultural, visual and performing arts organizations, 90 of which are devoted to multicultural and minority arts.
More than 90 languages are spoken throughout the Houston area.
Houston has professional teams representing every major sport.
Houston is home to the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo. The largest rodeo in the world, it attracts more than 1.8 million visitors each year.
Houston has a young population; 37 percent of Houstonians are 24 years old or younger and 34 percent are between the ages of 25 and 44.
Houston boasts more than 40 colleges, university and institutions - offering higher education options to suit all interests.
Houston is home to the Texas Medical Center, the largest medical center in the world, with a local economic impact of $10 billion. More than 52,000 people work within its facilities, which encompass 21 million square feet. Altogether 4.8 million patients visit them each year.
For Houstonians, 2000 was a banner year economically. Employment growth was 3 percent, or 63,000 new jobs. Per capita income rose 5 percent.
Home to 18 Fortune 500 companies and more than 5,000 energy related firms, Houston is considered by many as the Energy Capital of the world.
The Port of Houston ranks as the nation's largest port in international tonnage and second in total tonnage.
For three consecutive years, Houston has ranked first in the nation in new business growth, according to American Business Information. The most recent survey shows that more than 31,000 new local businesses were started in Houston. Los Angeles was a distant second with 16,780.
Houston has the most affordable housing of 10 most populated metropolitan areas; Houston housing costs are 39 percent below the average of 26 U.S. urban populations of more than 1.5 million.
Houston has the second lowest cost of living among major American cities.